Another feature of technological determinism is universalism: a particular technology (such as writing, print or electronic media) - or its absence - is seen as universally linked to the same basic social pattern. Universalism is 'asocial' and 'ahistorical': presented as outside the framework of any specific socio-cultural and historical context. But particular technologies are not universally associated with similar social patterns. 'The same technology can have very different "effects" in different situations' (MacKenzie & Wajcman 1985, p. 6). The implications of the use of a particular communication technology vary according to different historical and cultural circumstances. Even within cultures, the use of such technologies varies amongst individuals, groups and sub-cultures.